A heart transplant is surgery to remove the diseased heart from a person and replace it with a healthy one from an organ donor. To remove the heart from the donor, two or more healthcare providers must declare the donor brain-dead.
Before you can be put on a waiting list for a heart transplant, a healthcare provider makes the decision that this is the best treatment choice for your heart failure. A healthcare team also makes sure you are otherwise healthy enough to go through the transplant process.
You may need a heart transplant if your heart is failing and other treatments are not effective.
End-stage heart failure is a disease in which the heart muscle is failing severely in its attempt to pump blood through the body. It means other treatments are no longer working. End-stage heart failure is the final stage of heart failure. Despite its name, a diagnosis of heart failure does not mean the heart is about to stop beating. The term failure means the heart muscle is failing to pump blood normally because it is damaged or very weak, or both.
Some causes of heart failure include:
Your healthcare provider may have other reasons to recommend a heart transplant.
As with any surgery, complications may occur. Potential risks of a heart transplant may include:
Your body's immune system may reject the new heart. Rejection is your body's normal reaction to a foreign object or tissue. When you get a new heart, your immune system reacts to what it sees as a foreign threat and attacks the new organ. To allow the transplanted organ to survive in a new body, you will need to take medicines. The medicines will trick the immune system into accepting the transplant and keep it from attacking it.
You will need to take the medicines to prevent or treat rejection for the rest of your life. These drugs have side effects too. The side effects will depend on the specific medicines you take.
There may be other risks depending on your specific health condition. Be sure to discuss any concerns with your healthcare provider before the surgery.
Not everyone is a candidate for heart transplant. Because of the wide range of information needed to know if a person is eligible for transplant, a transplant team will review the evaluation. The team includes a transplant surgeon, a transplant cardiologist (doctor specializing in the treatment of the heart), nurse practitioners or physician assistants, one or more transplant nurses, a social worker, and a psychiatrist or psychologist. Other team members may include a dietitian, a chaplain, hospital administrator, and an anesthesiologist (doctor who uses medicines to keep you asleep during surgery).
The transplant evaluation process will include:
The transplant team will consider all the information from interviews, your health history, the findings from your physical exam, and your diagnostic test results when deciding if you are eligible for a heart transplant.
Once you have been accepted as a transplant candidate, you will be placed on the United Network for Organ Sharing list. When a donor organ becomes available, candidates are selected based on the severity of their condition, body size, and blood type. If the heart is to be yours, you will need to go to the hospital right away so you can get ready for the transplant. (Most hearts must be transplanted within 4 hours after they’ve been removed from the donor.)
These things will need to be done before the transplant:
A heart transplant requires open heart surgery and a stay in a hospital. Procedures may vary depending on your condition and your healthcare provider's practice.
Generally, a heart transplant follows this process:
After the surgery, someone will take you to the recovery room or the intensive care unit (ICU) and monitor you closely for several days. A nurse will connect you to machines that will display your electrocardiogram (ECG) tracing, blood pressure, other pressure readings, breathing rate, and your oxygen level. Heart transplant surgery requires a hospital stay of 7 to 14 days, or even longer.
You will have a tube in your throat that connects to a breathing machine (ventilator) until you are stable enough to breathe on your own. The breathing tube may stay in for a few hours up to several days, depending on your case. As you recover and start to breathe on your own, the breathing machine will be adjusted to allow you to take over more of the breathing. When you are able to breathe completely on your own and are able to cough, your doctor will remove the breathing tube.
After the breathing tube is out, a nurse will help you cough and take deep breaths every 2 hours. This will be uncomfortable due to soreness, but it is extremely important that you do this to keep mucus from collecting in your lungs and possibly causing pneumonia. Your nurse will show you how to hug a pillow tightly against your chest while coughing to help ease the discomfort.
You may get pain medicine as needed, either by a nurse, or by giving it yourself by pushing a button attached to a device connected to your IV line.
You may have a thin, plastic tube that goes through your nose and into your stomach to remove air that you swallow. The tube will be taken out when your bowels are working normally. You will not be able to eat or drink until the tube is removed.
Blood samples will be taken often to monitor your new heart, as well as other body functions. These include your lungs, kidneys, liver, and blood system.
You may be on special IV medicines to help your blood pressure and your heart, and to control any problems with bleeding. As your condition stabilizes, your doctor will gradually decrease, then stop, these medicines. If you have pacing wires in your heart, he or she will remove those too.
Once your doctor removes the breathing and stomach tubes and you are stable, you may start to drink liquids. You can gradually add more solid foods as you can handle them.
Your healthcare team will closely watch your anti-rejection (immunosuppression) medicines to make sure you are getting the right dose and the best combination of medicines.
Nurses, respiratory therapists, and physical therapists will work with you as you begin physical therapy and breathing exercises.
When your healthcare provider decides you are ready, you will be moved from the ICU to a private room on a surgical unit or transplant unit. Your recovery will continue there. You can gradually increase your activity as you get out of bed and walk around for longer periods. You can eat solid foods as tolerated.
Nurses, pharmacists, dietitians, physical therapists, and other members of the transplant team will teach you what you will need to do to take care of yourself when you go home.
Your healthcare team will arrange for you to go home and schedule a follow-up visit with your healthcare provider.
Once you are home, it will be important to keep the surgical area clean and dry. Your doctor will give you specific bathing instructions. During a follow-up visit, your doctor will remove the sutures or surgical staples, if they were not removed before leaving the hospital.
Do not drive until your healthcare provider tells you it's OK. Other activity restrictions may apply.
You will need frequent follow-up visits after transplant. These visits may include blood tests, chest X-rays, and biopsy. In a biopsy, your doctor uses a thin needle to remove tissue from the heart so he or she can examine it under a microscope. The transplant team will explain the schedule for these visits and tests. The rehab program will continue for many months.
Tell your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following:
Your healthcare provider may give you other instructions after the procedure, depending on your own case.
To allow the transplanted heart to survive in your body, you will need to take medicines for the rest of your life to fight rejection. Each person may react differently to medicines, and side effects can be serious. Your healthcare provider will tailor medicine plans to meet your needs.
You may get several anti-rejection medicines at first. The doses of these medicines may change often, depending on your response. Because anti-rejection medicines affect the immune system, you will be at higher risk for infections. It's important to keep a balance between preventing rejection and making you very susceptible to infection.
Some of the infections you will be especially susceptible to include oral yeast infection (thrush), herpes, and respiratory viruses. You should avoid contact with crowds and anyone who has an infection for the first few months after your surgery.
Regular dental care also is important. Your healthcare provider or dentist may prescribe antibiotics before any dental work to help prevent infections.
To watch for signs of rejection, you will likely get routine right heart biopsies. A biopsy is typically done once a week in the early period after a transplant, then gradually changed to monthly or longer intervals. The biopsy procedures may eventually stop.
The right heart biopsy procedure may be done as an outpatient or as an inpatient if you are already in the hospital. The procedure involves a right heart catheterization. A special catheter is threaded through a vein in your neck or groin and into the right atrium of your heart. Your doctor takes 4 to 6 tiny tissue samples through the catheter and checks them for signs of rejection. If your doctor finds signs of rejection, he or she may adjust your anti-rejection medicine. The biopsy procedure has its own instructions and risks, and your healthcare provider will discuss these with you.
Before you agree to the test or the procedure make sure you know: