TPO Abs, Tg Abs, TSH-Rs Abs
This test measures the amount of thyroid antibodies in your blood. The test can help find out whether you have a problem with your thyroid.
Your thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland near the base of your throat above your collarbone. The thyroid makes two hormones, T3 and T4. These hormones affect your energy levels, mood, weight, and other important aspects of your health.
In some people, the immune system makes antibodies that affect the thyroid gland, causing health problems. These antibodies may target:
Thyroid peroxidase (TPO). This can lead to a condition called Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This condition causes an underactive thyroid (hypothyroidism).
Thyroglobulin (Tg). This substance in the thyroid plays a role in T3 and T4 production. Almost everyone with Hashimoto's thyroiditis has high levels of antibodies against TPO and Tg.
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor. This can cause a condition called Graves disease, leading to overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism).
You might have this test if your healthcare provider suspects that you have Graves disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
Symptoms of Graves disease include:
Eye symptoms like irritation, pressure, light sensitivity, double vision, and trouble moving eyes
Low tolerance for heat
Tremors in the hands
Redness and swelling on shins
Swollen thyroid, called goiter
Symptoms of Hashimoto's thyroiditis include:
Goiter that shrinks over time
Low tolerance for cold
Body and joint pain
Irregular menstrual periods
Slower heart rate
Your healthcare provider may order other tests, including:
Measurement of TSH, which is made by your pituitary gland. TSH regulates how much thyroid hormone your thyroid makes.
Measurement of free T4
Measurement of free T3
Radioactive iodine uptake test and thyroid scan, for Graves disease
Many things may affect your lab test results. These include the method each lab uses to do the test. Even if your test results are different from the normal value, you may not have a problem. To learn what the results mean for you, talk with your healthcare provider.
Normal results are negative, meaning that no antibodies against TPO, Tg, or TSH were found. You likely don't have a problem with your thyroid.
If your results show antibodies against TPO or Tg, it means you may have Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
If your results show antibodies against TSH receptor, it means you may have Graves disease.
People with type 1 diabetes or certain autoimmune diseases, and pregnant women are more likely to have antibodies against the thyroid.
The test requires a blood sample, which is drawn through a needle from a vein in your arm.
Taking a blood sample with a needle carries risks that include bleeding, infection, bruising, or feeling dizzy. When the needle pricks your arm, you may feel a slight stinging sensation or pain. Afterward, the site may be slightly sore.
Certain medicines can affect your results. Being pregnant can affect your results.
You don't need to prepare for this test. But be sure your healthcare provider knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illicit drugs you may use.