IF antibody; intrinsic factor antibody level; intrinsic factor blocking antibody measurement; antibody level, intrinsic factor
This is a blood test for pernicious anemia, which is caused by a deficiency of vitamin B12. The disease used to be life-threatening, but today it can be treated with vitamin B12 shots or pills.
To get enough vitamin B12, your body needs a protein called intrinsic factor (IF). This protein is made by the lining of your stomach. It allows you to absorb vitamin B12 from the food you eat. Your body needs B12 to make healthy red blood cells. If you don't get enough B12, your red blood cells won't divide properly and will be too large, making it hard for them to squeeze out of the bone marrow. This can lead to anemia, or a lack of red blood cells. Without enough B12, your nervous and digestive systems also won't work properly.
The body produces antibodies to attack what it believes to be foreign substances. If your body sees IF as a foreign invader and makes antibodies against it, IF will be destroyed and cannot help your body absorb vitamin B12.
Your healthcare provider might order this test if he or she suspects you have pernicious anemia or a vitamin B12 deficiency. Signs of anemia include:
Neuropathy, or tingling and numbness in the hands and feet; a "pins and needles" feeling
As part of your diagnosis for pernicious anemia, your healthcare provider might order a vitamin B12 test or a folate level test to measure the amount of the vitamin in your blood.
He or she might also order a Schilling test, a three-part procedure that can distinguish between pernicious anemia and other conditions with similar symptoms.
To help confirm the diagnosis, your healthcare provider might order an anti-parietal cell antibody test, which measures the presence of certain antibodies in the stomach.
Many things may affect your lab test results. These include the method each lab uses to do the test. Even if your test results are different from the normal value, you may not have a problem. To learn what the results mean for you, talk with your healthcare provider.
Test results that are negative for the presence of IF antibody are considered normal. But it's possible to have pernicious anemia in spite of this negative test result.
The test requires a blood sample, which is drawn through a needle from a vein in your arm.
Taking a blood sample with a needle carries risks that include bleeding, infection, bruising, or feeling dizzy. When the needle pricks your arm, you may feel a slight stinging sensation or pain. Afterward, the site may be slightly sore.
Injected vitamin B12 could affect results. If you have had an injection of the vitamin, your healthcare provider will probably ask you to wait for up to two weeks before testing.
You don't need to prepare for this test.