RPR test, syphilis test
The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test is a blood test that looks for antibodies to syphilis. Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) that first causes symptoms common to many other illnesses. Early symptoms include fever, swollen glands, muscle aches, and sore throat.
In addition, people who have early-stage syphilis may have sores (lesions) that can pass the infection on to other people during sexual contact.
If undetected, syphilis can stay in the body for years, causing damage to internal organs. Eventually, it can cause numbness, paralysis, blindness, and even death. But it can be easily cured if treated in the early stages with one shot of penicillin G benzathine.
The RPR test looks for antibodies that react to syphilis in the blood. This means the test doesn't detect Treponema pallidum, the actual bacterium that causes syphilis. Instead, it looks for antibodies against substances given off by cells that have been harmed by the bacteria.
You may have this test if you have ever been sexually active and show signs of syphilis. These signs may include:
Small, painless sore (chancre) at the place where syphilis invaded your body
Skin rash, sometimes on the palms of your hands or the bottoms of your feet
Swollen lymph glands
Years after the initial infection, in the final stages of the disease, symptoms include numbness, paralysis, blindness, and dementia.
The RPR test is often used to monitor treatment of a syphilis infection. If you are being treated for syphilis, you need to stop having sex until your sores have healed completely. In addition, your partner(s) should be told so they can also be tested and treated if needed.
If you are a sexually active adult with HIV/AIDS, your healthcare provider will likely order the RPR test at least once a year. In addition, screenings for syphilis and other STDs are recommended every 3 to 6 months if you have had unprotected sex, multiple sex partners, or intercourse while under the influence of illicit drugs, including methamphetamine. Condoms help prevent the spread of syphilis, but do not protect against sores outside the condom area.
Your healthcare provider may also order the RPR test if you are in a group that is at high risk for syphilis. This includes sex workers, men who have sex with men, or adult prisoners. Also because syphilis can infect and even kill a developing baby, all pregnant women should be screened to avoid passing the disease to the fetus.
RPR is not specific to just syphilis. If your RPR test is positive, you will need additional tests to confirm that you have syphilis. One of the most common tests used to confirm a syphilis diagnosis is the T. pallidum enzyme immunoassay. Other tests may include:
Fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption
Microhemagglutination test for antibodies to T. pallidum
T. pallidum particle agglutination assay
Tests for other STDs
These tests will generally rule out a false-positive result, which means your test is positive even if you don't have syphilis. Your healthcare provider may also be able to detect the syphilis bacteria by taking a sample from a moist sore and looking at it under a microscope.
Many things may affect your lab test results. These include the method each lab uses to do the test. Even if your test results are different from the normal value, you may not have a problem. To learn what the results mean for you, talk with your healthcare provider.
A normal result is negative or nonreactive. This means you don't have syphilis. Positive results are given as a ratio in titers, which tells your healthcare provider the amount of antibodies in your blood.
Here are some general results:
If you have a history of syphilis and your RPR test is negative or nonreactive, it is likely that you no longer have syphilis.
A positive RPR test should be followed by another type of test to diagnose syphilis.
If you have been treated for syphilis in the past, an RPR test that shows a titer increase of fourfold means you likely have a new syphilis infection.
The test requires a blood sample, which is drawn through a needle from a vein in your arm.
Taking a blood sample with a needle carries risks that include bleeding, infection, bruising, or feeling dizzy. When the needle pricks your arm, you may feel a slight stinging sensation or pain. Afterward, the site may be slightly sore.
Your test results may be false-positive for many reasons. These include pregnancy, IV drug use, tuberculosis, chronic liver disease, recent vaccines, or inflammation of the heart lining or valves (endocarditis). You may also have a false-positive result if you have one of a number of infections. These include rickettsial infections like typhus or Rocky Mountain spotted fever.
Your results may be false-negative if the test is done too soon after you are infected with syphilis. It takes 14 to 21 days after infection with the spirochetes for your body's immune response to be found by the test. Drinking alcohol within 24 hours of the test also can give a false-negative result.
You don't need to prepare for this test. But be sure your healthcare provider knows about all medicines, herbs, vitamins, and supplements you are taking. This includes medicines that don't need a prescription and any illicit drugs you may use.